Advanced and Alternative Materials

 

 

Example of the "i-Mat Warbonnet"

 

List of Alternative/Advanced Materials used for this warbonnet replica:

  • Golden eagle feathers -> hand dyed domestic feathers
  • Otter fur cover -> domestic mink fur
  • Rawhide feather attachment (« firecrackers ») -> 3D flexible TPU
  • Pericardium/sinew feather attachment (« firecrackers ») -> 3D flexible TPU
  • Porcupine Quill band and quill wrapping-> 3D flexible TPU
  • Faceted « Russian Blue » glass beads -> 3D CAD epoxy resin beads.
  • Metal Conchas ->  recycled PCB (electronic Printed Circuit Board)
  • Golden eagle feathers -> hand dyed domestic feathers

     

  • Other Materials used for this warbonnet:

  • Vegetally tan leather
  • Dyed human hair
  • Brass hawk bells
  • Animal glue (rabbit skin glue)

 

  • Golden eagle feathers -> hand dyed domestic feathers

 

The traditional warbonnet is generally constructed with immature tail feathers of a golden eagle (Aquila Chrysaetos), which are regarded with great mystic reverence in Plain Indian tribal cultures. Even though the golden eagle is not an endangered species anymore, the possession of these feathers is internationally ruled by the Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the golden eagle is therefore protected against over-exploitation through international trade. In the USA the permits for these feathers are restricted to Native Americans that are federally enrolled.

 

Alternatives to real eagle feathers are widely used for the movie industry, reenactment, costumes… and are generally made with dyed turkey feathers (poor quality) or hand-painted turkey feathers (better quality). However, these options are not to be considered for a high quality replica because if the obvious differences in terms of size, aspect (optical properties…), and softness (mechanical properties…).

 

Fig. 1: Graham Green in "Dances with Wolves", wearing eagle feather replicas, made of poor quality dyed turkey feathers © 1990 Orion Pictures Corporation.

 

 

The best eagle feather replicas are obtained by either bleaching brown feathers or dyeing white feathers with hair dyes and bleaching agent 1.

 

The next figure shows the main differences between a real immature eagle tail feather and several replicas.

 

Fig. 2: Main differences between a real immature eagle tail feather (a), an accurate replica (b) using bleaching technique, a hand-painted commercial replica (turkey) (c) and a dyed turkey feather (d).

 

 

 

Fig. 3: Replicating a golden eagle immature tail feather (used as a model) using several hair dyes on large commercial white feathers.

 

 

 

1 The Lost Flower: Ethnologic Replica of the Yellow Calf Warbonnet

M. Mourey, F. Saumade, T. Sarnet, to be published

 

 

 

 

  • Otter fur cover -> domestic mink fur & recycled fur collars and hats

 

 

Fig. 4: Recycled vintage fur collars and hats (domestic mink).